However, the lack of Houbara movements were monitored by satellite for locations for several days did not allow us to identify periods ranging from 5 months to more than 3. The signal trans- Shan Mountains. The signal of bird China border via the Emel valley.
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Over the next 3 years, was lost on 30 November and retrieved bird joined the Jungar Basin through a natural 3 months later, km away, but with no signs of passage, east of the Bogda Chan Mountains east of activity. The pre- and Houbara died on its breeding ground and post-breeding migration consistently followed on 4 April Eleven migration routes were recorded the same routes. None Table 1.
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Houbara identity, start date, end date and duration of monitoring, number of locations used for analysis and of migration routes recorded. Platform Transmission No. Figure 1. Migration routes and stopovers of three male Houbara Bustards birds , and captured in the Gobi Desert, China. Table 2. Characteristics of pre- and post-breeding migrations of Houbara Bustard breeding in the Gobi Desert, China. Distance Overall No. Migration routes and stopovers of the male Houbara Bustard captured in the Gobi Desert, China, and satellite-tracked for three consecutive years.
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As an example, bird between 8 and 14 October. Arrival on the wintering grounds ranged from 23 October to Stopovers 7 November. Distances covered during pre- Removing this case, there were 3. Table 3. Characteristics of trans-country migration distance travelled, first and last dates of migration, mean number of days and sample size per country of four Houbara Bustards captured in the Gobi Desert, China. Two and a migrations. Only one bird had a long stopover during half months The individual breeding season home range was migrations included at least one long stopover In Table 2.
The 28 identified short stopovers were not , all of them used a single core home range, localized on specific sites along the migration routes, whereas in the and breeding seasons, bird but never occurred in the mountainous areas between used three and two different areas, respectively. Urumqi and Lake Balkash. By contrast, the eight long The movements from one area to the other occurred stopovers occurred in only a few different areas, the at the end of the breeding season before migration Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan, the Muyunkum departure, from 9 August to 7 October , and and Taukum deserts in Kazakhstan and mainly the from 22 July to 11 October The overall home- Jungar Basin in China Figs 1 and 2.
Bird , which was moni- Characteristics of trans-country tored for four consecutive breeding seasons, gradu- migration ally shifted its breeding home range from one season By mid-October all four birds had left China, and by to the other. The range overlap decreased from The migration and Bird wintered in Turkmenistan in tion, whereas crossing of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan the Amu Darya valley, near the Uzbekistan border did not exceed 11 days.
Time segments spent in each and had a km2 wintering season home range. Bird country were longer during the pre-breeding migra- spent the winter km away from tion, lasting, respectively, 27 and 28 days in China and Bird , also in Turkmenistan but nearer the Iran Kazakhstan, where they had their long pre-breeding border. It used a km2 wintering range in three stopovers. Flying through Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan distinct areas, separated by 8 km between first and in spring took 19 and 17 days, respectively.
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By 21 second and 70 km between the second and third March the birds had left Turkmenistan, and arrived areas. Between and , bird spent in China 1 month later. Wintering home range in overlapped Range use on breeding and wintering its wintering home range by 0. The home grounds range in winter overlapped the home range used Over 3 years, male spent 5.
Long stopovers occurred in four regions already Gobi Desert up to the Jungar Basin on an ill-defined identified as important for Houbara, either for breed- wide front. In the Jungar Basin, they joined routes ing or for staging Combreau et al. The Jungar Basin was the most important and wintering in the Cholistan Desert of Pakistan staging area.
Male stopped there for 10—15 Tourenq et al. Several natural passes between days at the end of March during three consecutive the Jungar Basin and Kazakhstan, such as the Emel years and male for 8 days in early April The Kyzylkum Desert, tains.
From the Taukum and Sary-Ishikotrau deserts, identified as an important staging site for Houbara the routes of the Gobi Desert breeding Houbara were breeding in the Taukum Desert and in north Mongolia, broadly similar to the paths used by north Mongolian was not used by the birds from Gobi. Overall, with more stages than spring migrations Berthold their migration routes followed the distribution range Conversely, with the exception of bird , of Houbara breeding populations along desert and which spent 22 days in the Muyunkum Desert in xeric shrub lands from eastern Asia to the Middle-East.
If refuelling was the main purpose of stopo- breeding season by other Houbara populations that vers, and as long as weather conditions were not too migrate further south in winter. The Karakum is thus different or adverse, we should have expected to both a wintering and a breeding area for different observe the same pattern during pre- and post-breeding populations that successively use the same site.
Some migrations, and to record stopover durations more or Houbara may also be resident in Karakum. Although our data do not support this hypothesis, they might suggest that the Houbara is a capital breeder that Migration dates stores energy for reproduction during long pre-breeding Departure dates from the Gobi Desert in late stopovers. September—early October were similar to the Osborne et al. In , Houbara from attract local breeding females. In accordance with the Taukum Desert left their breeding grounds their lek-like breeding system Hingrat et al.
The difference in departure dates could rearing, giving them the theoretical opportunity to be the result of annual variations; however, the extent mate during stopovers. Moreover, females can start of the difference nearly 2 months suggests this var- to lay eggs only 3—5 days post-arrival on their breed- iation to be related to the geographical origin of the ing grounds in China Combreau et al. Given Houbara subpopulations. With monthly similar aver- a sperm storage ability of around 10 days Gaucher age temperatures in both breeding areas, we would et al. The absence of would have left earlier because of the greater dis- important genetic variations in Asian Houbara popula- tance that they have to travel.
By the time that the tions Pitra et al. As flapping-wing for nearly 2 months.
October in south Kazakhstan reported by a Combreau pers. Bird was last located in The four Houbara studied were captured on the same Turkmenistan, where falconry is widely practised. Their wintering area was identified for two of definitively related to hunting. Given the important them, km apart on either side of Turkmenistan. The understanding of population connectivity is These results support both the view that migrant of major relevance for conservation issues Webster Houbara populations, which were previously thought et al. With regard to migration routes from to be more separated Osborne , are substan- different breeding populations, Asian Houbara tially mixed and the view that there is weak migratory populations show a low degree of connectivity, but connectivity sensu Webster et al.
Hunting on stopovers breeding and wintering Houbara populations. Hou- and wintering grounds may affect many different bara breeding in the same area may winter in differ- breeding populations. My advice? Good for you! Specifically, about how we collectively, at a point in our healing can and should love the narcs from a distance of course in order to help heal the planet.
And now, over the the past month or so…there it is. I am so very grateful for your aide in my healing soul sister.
This is very powerful. Dearest Melanie, I wept as I read this article…wept with tears of confirmation and understanding. But this article clarified how toxic, deranged people fit into the Universal scheme and my personal experience in this lifetime. Thank you for sharing the understanding. Everything makes perfect sense.
I knew it would, and now it does. Once again, you light the path of bringing myself home to me. I concur with those feelings — past lives were always just a deep inner knowing for me too … I get what you are saying! It is so true there is a perfect purpose to it all, and that grants us so much comfort and healing ….
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And such a beautiful acceptance and a way to work with the natural rhythms of Life instead of oppose and get smashed up by it. Bless your beautiful words Gale and thank you for being a soul sister doing Life this way with me and this Community. Thank you for taking such a courageous step by publicising this article. I have been incredibly blessed to have been able to raise my consciousness to a point where I am genuinely grateful for the life time I have had — including the 14 years of narcissistic abuse and everything before as this was the path I chose, in order to get to fulfilling my life purpose.
Without the experiences I have had, I would not even know any of this existed. To read your article really stirred something deep within me — I have been holding myself back from going public for fear of persecution — your article has inspired me to step forward more publicly and be seen shining a light on narcissistic abuse.